Computer Fundamentals Part(1)

Introduction

The word “computer” comes from the word “compute”, which means, “to calculate”. Hence, people usually use a computer to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic operations at high speed. In fact, the original objective for inventing a computer was to create a fast calculating machine. However, more than 80% of work done by computers today is of non-mathematical or non-numerical nature. Hence, to define computer merely as a calculating device is to ignore over 80% of its functions. More accurately, we can define a computer as a device that operates upon data.

Data can be anything like bio-data, hence computer is used for short listing candidates for recruiting; marks obtained by students in when used for preparing results; details (name, age, sex, etc.) of passengers when used for or railway reservations: or number of different parameters when used for solving scientific problems, etc. Hence, data comes in various shapes and sizes depending upon the type of computer application. A computer can and retrieves data as and when desired. The fact that computers process data is so fundamental that have started calling it a data processor.

The name data processor is more inclusive because modern computers not only compute in the usual sense but also perform other functions with data that flows to and from them. For example, data processors may gather data from various incoming sources, merge (process of mixing or putting together) them all, sort (process of arranging in some of sequence— ascending or descending) them in the desired order, and finally print them in desired format. Notice that none of these operations involves arithmetic computations in the usual sense but a computer is the most suitable device for performing them.

People usually consider a computer to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic operations at high speed. It is also known as a data processor because it not only computes in the usual sense but also performs other functions with the data. The activity of processing data using a computer is called data processing. Data processing consists of three sub-activities: capturing input data, manipulating the data, and managing output results. As used in data processing, information is data arranged in an order and form that is useful to people receiving it. Hence, data is raw material used as input to data processing and information is processed data obtained as output of data processing.

 

1.1 Characteristics of Computers

Increasing popularity of computers has proved that it is a very powerful and useful tool. The power and useful of this popular tool are mainly due to its following characteristics:

  1. An automatic machine works by itself without human intervention. Computers automatic machines because once started on a job, they carry out the job (normally without a human assistance) until it is finished. However, computers being machines cannot start themselves and cannot go out and find their own problems and solutions. We need to instruct a computer using coded instructions that specify exactly how it will do a particular job. Some of the other characteristics of computers (such as speed and accuracy) are because they are automatic and work on a problem without any human intervention.
  2. Speed. A computer is a very fast device. It can perform in a few seconds, the amount of work that a human being can do in an entire year if he/she worked day and night and did nothing else. In other words, a computer can do in a few minutes what would take a man his entire life time while talking about the speed of a computer we do not talk in terms of seconds or even milliseconds (10–3) but in terms of microseconds (106), nanoseconds (10–9), and even picoseconds (10–12). A powerful computer is capable of performing several billion (l09) simple arithmetic operations per second.
  1. Accuracy. In addition to being very fast, computers are very accurate. Accuracy of a computer is consistently high and the degree of its accuracy depends upon its design. A computer performs even calculation with the same accuracy. However, errors can occur in a computer. These errors are mainly due to human rather than technological weaknesses. For example, errors may occur due to imprecise thinking by a programmer or incorrect input data. We often refer to computer errors caused due to incorrect input data or unreliable programs as garbage-in-garbage-out (GIGO).
  2. Diligence. Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of concentration. It can continuously work for hours without creating any error and without grumbling. Hence, computers score over human beings in doing routine type of jobs that require great accuracy. If ten million calculations have to be performed, a computer will perform the last one with exactly the same accuracy and speed as the first one.
  3. Versatility. Versatility is one of the most wonderful things about a computer. One moment it is preparing results of an examination, next moment it is busy preparing electricity bills, and in between, it may be helping an office secretary to trace an important letter in seconds. All that is required to change its talent is to slip in a new program (a sequence of instructions for the computer) into it. In brief, a computer is capable of performing almost any task, if the task can be reduced to a finite series of logical steps.
  4. Power of Remembering. As a human being acquires new knowledge, his/her brain subconsciously selects what it feels to be important and worth retaining in memory. The brain relegates unimportant details to back of mind or just forgets them. This is not the case with computers. A computer can store and recall any amount of information because of its secondary storage (a type of detachable memory) capability. It can retain a piece of information as long as a user desires and the user can recall the information whenever required. Even after several years, a user can recall exactly the same information that he/she had stored in the computer several years ago. A computer forgets or looses creation information only when a user asks it to do so. Hence, it is entirely up to the user to make a computer retain or forget some information. No IQ.   A computer is not a magical device. It possesses no intelligence of its own. Its IQ is zero, at least until today. It has to be told what to do and in what sequence. Hence, only a user determines—at tasks a computer will perform. A computer cannot take its own decision in this regard. No Feelings. Computers are devoid of emotions. They have no feelings and no instincts because they are Machines. Although men have succeeded in building a memory for computer, but no computer processes the equivalent of a human heart and soul. Based on our feelings, taste, knowledge, and experience we often make certain judgments in our day-to-day life whereas, computers cannot make judgments on their own. They make judgments based on the instructions given to them in the form of programs that are written by us (human beings).

 

Shri Krishna Janmashtami

Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Shri Krishna Janmashtami

The place where God or God occupies in the form of his divine power is called pilgrimage and that place is called pilgrimage place. Similarly, on the day God Himself quotes, the day becomes worshiped, purified and festive. On the day of Lord Krishna Janmashtami, we all express veneration by keeping vows and worshiping with sacred prayers. On this day only fruit diet is done. Fast means that do not stay in the pose of rest. Do not lie on this day. Do not sit in front of the chair sitting by sitting. Thus the body is meditated. By applying body strength comes firmness and beliefs of God are strengthened. By joining Bhajan Kirtan in the temples, the mind comes to purity in the mind.

                Vande Prabhu ParvarvindeBhio: Rarenda |
                    Yogi Kul Vanditan, Karmasu Kaushalam ||

God’s meditation is always welfare. Shri Krishna tells you to act on the path of karma. While working in his own religion, he is asked to attain salvation. Brahmin, Kshatriyya, Vaishya (businessman) and Shudra (farmer) should do all of their own natural deeds in these four letters. Everyone is interested in doing karma. God has given us the immense nature of doing deeds.

Others do the same, so I also conduct myself in karma. This is not a simple statement. It has an intense meaning. It appears from this that if the best person does wrong work, then will the sensible person also do wrong work. Will not you think? I will never do wrong things. But this rule says that all the best man imitates. Whether it is good or bad. Now you take India’s imitation of western clothes. Firstly all men and women were hesitant to wear half incomplete clothing. The elite class started wearing such clothes. Those who respected and respected the society. Whichever was the greatest. Then other people of the society started their simulation. And today everyone has left the hesitation and adopted western clothes. On the contrary, even if the upper class people started wearing dhoti kurtas, then such a rule.

Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Whenever God is incarnate, in this world of emotions, he performs liberation only in life. God is the rest of the Karmadhas and Lord Vishnu is himself a form of self. Let us fast and worship this day and imitate Yogeshwar, the best life of Shri Krishna.

Yogeshwar Sri Krishna says that I am the supreme (Spirit) in the souls. That’s why I’m male. I am the supreme God, beyond the awareness of ignorance (which is not the darkness of ignorance). That is, those who are themselves knowledgeable and ignorant can not be present before them.
                        The mind thought, today is fasting.
                        Today, why do you think in Hari?
                        Nothing keeps a pure house.
                        Why do the thoughts of ill-feelings in mind persist?
                        Why the reverence convinces the mind.
                        I am a stranger, the appetite makes such a feeling.
Krishna’s Birthday
Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Shri Krishna Janmashtami

Shri Krishna was born on the midnight of Bhadrapad Krishna Ashtami in the Rohini Nakshatra, Devaki and Srivasudev Was born in the form of a son. Kans was imprisoned in the prison due to the fear of his death, his sister Devaki and Vasudev. According to Lord’s instructions, Kushna was taken from Mathura jail in the night to Nand Baba’s house in Gokul.

Nand’s wife Yashoda was a daughter. Vasudev took the girl along with him to Shrikrishna near Yashoda. Kans wanted to kill the girl as Vasudeva and Devaki’s children, but she failed in this work. After this Sri Krishna was brought up by Yashoda and Nand. When Shri Krishna grew up, he got his parents freed from his imprisonment by slaughtering Kansa. Birth of Lord

Hanuman is  celebrated in Janmashtami as a festival. In this celebration, after offering camphor, turmeric, curd, ghee, oil, saffron and water on Lord Vishwagra, people interact and consume these items with great joy. At many places, milk-yogurt in handi is filled to a very high altitude. Young people’s trolls take part in this festival by spreading it and spoiling the prize.

Happy Independence day

Independence Day Speech by Jawahar Lal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, was a man, who could influence the masses with his oration. He was an immensely learned man and could feel the pulse of the masses.  Nehru’s message to the nation on the Independence Day was delivered on the brink of midnight of the 14 August 1947. The speech focussed on various topics related to India and the freedom that she had achieved from the shackles of British colonial rule. The speech also encouraged and inspired the countrymen to wake from the long slumber and take steps for the upliftment and development of India.

Jawaharlal Nehru’s independence speech aimed at motivating the general masses at building a new India. The speech aimed at boosting the people for working harder and with real zeal and enthusiasm to make India the numero uno nation in the world. There were certain social evils that were dominant in the Indian society in the form of illiteracy, poverty, ignorance, poor health conditions and many more in pre-independent India.

Independence Day 

The message propagated for the eradication of these social evils and to make India a prospering nation. The message of the first Prime Minister of independent India, Jawaharlal Nehru, also requested the people of the country to actively participate in the process of nation-building. He also urged the people to have and show confidence in the national leaders of the country, who were bestowed with the duty of carrying the nation forward. The concept of equality was also emphasized in the independence speech made by Jawaharlal Nehru.

The Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi, also finds reference in the speech made by Nehru. He also pays homage to the various freedom fighters, who had sacrificed their lives for the purpose of attaining freedom from the bond of the British rule. He also makes a mention of the pains that several people had to endure due to the partition of the country. The speech also motivated the common masses to undergo the initial pains and troubles in the process of making a glorious India.

Last but not the least, Jawaharlal Nehru in the speech paid homage to Mother India and took vows to defend her in all troubles. He also summoned all the countrymen to bind themselves to the services of the Motherland.

Independence Day Speech

The exact speech that was delivered by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru is as follows:

“Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.

Independence Day
Independence Day
Independence Day
Independence Day

At the dawn of history India started on her unending quest, and trackless centuries are filled with her striving and the grandeur of her success and her failures. Through good and ill fortune alike she has never lost sight of that quest or forgotten the ideals which gave her strength. We end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity, to the greater triumphs and achievements that await us. Are we brave enough and wise enough to grasp this opportunity and accept the challenge of the future?

Freedom and power bring responsibility. The responsibility rests upon this Assembly, a sovereign body representing the sovereign people of India. Before the birth of freedom we have endured all the pains of labour and our hearts are heavy with the memory of this sorrow. Some of those pains continue even now. Nevertheless, the past is over and it is the future that beckons to us now.

That future is not one of ease or resting but of incessant striving so that we may fulfil the pledges we have so often taken and the one we shall take today. The service of India means the service of the millions who suffer. It means the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity. The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye. That may be beyond us, but as long as there are tears and suffering, so long our work will not be over.

 

And so we have to labour and to work, and work hard, to give reality to our dreams. Those dreams are for India, but they are also for the world, for all the nations and peoples are too closely knit together today for any one of them to imagine that it can live apart Peace has been said to be indivisible; so is freedom, so is prosperity now, and so also is disaster in this One World that can no longer be split into isolated fragments.

To the people of India, whose representatives we are, we make an appeal to join us with faith and confidence in this great adventure. This is no time for petty and destructive criticism, no time for ill-will or blaming others.

We have to build the noble mansion of free India where all her children may dwell. The appointed day has come-the day appointed by destiny-and India stands forth again, after long slumber and struggle, awake, vital, free and independent. The past clings on to us still in some measure and we have to do much before we redeem the pledges we have so often taken. Yet the turning-point is past, and history begins anew for us, the history which we shall live and act and others will write about.

It is a fateful moment for us in India, for all Asia and for the world. A new star rises, the star of freedom in the East, a new hope comes into being, a vision long cherished materializes. May the star never set and that hope never be betrayed! We rejoice in that freedom, even though clouds surround us, and many of our people are sorrow stricken and difficult problems encompass us. But freedom brings responsibilities and burdens and we have to face them in the spirit of a free and disciplined people.

On this day our first thoughts go to the architect of this freedom, the Father of our Nation [Gandhi], who, embodying the old spirit of India held aloft the torch of freedom and lighted up the darkness that surrounded us. We have often been unworthy followers of his and have strayed from his message, but not only we but succeeding generations will remember this message and bear the imprint in their hearts of this great son of India, magnificent in his faith and strength and courage and humility. We shall never allow that torch of freedom to be blown out, however high the wind or stormy the tempest.

Our next thoughts must be of the unknown volunteers and soldiers of freedom who, without praise or reward, have served India even unto death. We think also of our brothers and sisters who have been cut off from us by political boundaries and who unhappily cannot share at present in the freedom that has come. They are of us and will remain of us whatever may happen, and we shall be sharers in their good [or] ill fortune alike.

The future beckons to us. Whither do we go and what shall be our endeavour? To bring freedom and opportunity to the common man, to the peasants and workers of India; to fight and end poverty and ignorance and disease; to build up a prosperous, democratic and progressive nation, and to create social, economic and political institutions which will ensure justice and fullness of life to every man and woman.

We have hard work ahead. There is no resting for any one of us till we redeem our pledge in full, till we make all the people of India what destiny intended them to be. We are citizens of a great country on the verge of bold advance, and we have to live up to that high standard. All of us, to whatever religion we may belong, are equally the children of India with equal rights, privileges and obligations. We cannot encourage communalism or narrow-mindedness, for no nation can be great whose people are narrow in thought or in action.

To the nations and peoples of the world we send greetings and pledge ourselves to cooperate with them in furthering peace, freedom and democracy. And to India, our much-loved motherland, the ancient, the eternal and the ever-new, we pay our reverent homage and we bind ourselves afresh to her service. Jai Hind.”

 

Sources of Ancient Indian History(Part 1)

Introduction

History of each nation is a heritage for its future generations to come. Glorious works done by the predecessors inspire next generations. After analyzing their mistakes, decide their course of actions and effort of regaining the glorious past is done. Any society can’t save its cultural heritage by staying away from its past. Hence, every society is connected with its past and plans for the future on the basis of its past. This is the reason, each nation attached prime importance to the study of its history. When we study the importance of Indian history, then many characteristics of that time come across, which we don’t get from any other nation’s ancient culture.

Firstly, India is the only country which made humans cultured and civilized first. The time, when other people of civilized and developed nations were living in forests living life of animals, India had already developed high-class culture. Secondly, India is the only country, whose cultural lifeline has been fl owing since very ancient periods. In all other countries, where developed any specificce culture, have been lost in times and their existence ended.

Today, they are only a subject of history. Famous poet of Urdu Iqbal said, “Greek, Egypt, Rome all got extinct, but there is something that our existence does not end.” It means that all cultures of Greece, Rome and Egypt got extinct and replaced by new culture, which has got nothing to do with old culture. But India is the only country in the world, which is living up with its old tradition and culture with its great values being intact.

Sources of Ancient Indian History2
Sources of Ancient Indian History

Iqbal says that there is something fundamental l in having this continuity of Indian culture. Student of history must study these superior values and elements else, we can’t study India as India, and this can only be done by studying ancient Indian history. Thirdly, this is the quality of Indian culture only that has to power to give secular and spiritual satisfaction both, i.e. it has the ability to have all round human development. Due to this only India was called ‘golden bird’ and had the honor of being called ‘World Guru’.

Fourthly, Indian culture has the power to establish peace as this has seen the entire world as a family and has inspired Indians to put in efforts for the development of its peace and prosperity. Thus, people here done great job of making other people excel in their lives. With above characteristics in context of our great ancient history, we can analyze the importance of ancient Indian history.

In the absence of such study, student of India can’t ever know that he is part of such great cultural heritage. Student shall feel proud towards glorious Indian culture and tradition. British have deformed Indian history and presented in such manner that Indian students feel inferior and their courage recede. Glorious Indian past can inspire Indian students to do great work and ambition of rekindling ancient glory of Indian history can be achieved.

1.1 Sources of Ancient Indian History

India is an ancient country. As per many Indian scholars, Indian culture is the oldest in the world. Indians pondered over all aspects of life and being expert in writing, they composed literature on poetry, philosophy, art, science and other topics. As per foreign scholars too, Indian culture is older than china, Egypt, Mesopotamia etc. Despite having such great scholars in greatly civilized ancient country, India does not have a written chronology of history, this looks surprising. Some foreign historians have gone to the extent and said that Indian historian lacked historical sense.

Sources of Ancient Indian History
Sources of Ancient Indian History

Reaching to conclusion that there was no historical creation in ancient Indian time, would be wrong. Actually, there were no such important historical development in that period that could be recorded. Actually this can be considered as truth that Indians were neutral to history and politics and they used to study these subjects under other social disciplines only.

As per Dr. R.C. Majumdar, “One of the greatest defects of Indian culture is the aversion of Indians to write history. They applied themselves to all conceivable branches of literature and excelled in many of them, but never seriously took to writing history.” Alberuni says, Hindus don’t pay much attention to the historical order of things. As regards knowing Indian resources, sources to history prior to 6th century BC are limited, but post that period we have enough sources.

Researches till now have dug out sufficient ancient Indian history resources. Even then, it is not possible to have chronological description of ancient Indian history, as other nations. Main reason being absence of great historians like Herodotus of Greece (father of history), Livy of Rome or Albertan of Turkey. Reasons of Neutralism of Indians towards History—Lack of chronological order in Indian history can’t be justified to see it as lack of historical sense. There can be many reasons for such ignorance to  historical chronology as mentioned below—

(1) Historical Writers were Brahmans—Composer of entire Indian literature were Brahmans, who  had little interest in politics. Their interest was more in poetry, arts, philosophy and science. This section of society was majorly involved in spiritual meditation and establishment of moral values.  They had little interest in physical life. Instead of describing activities of kings and emperors, they mentioned different disciplines required for guidance of the society of their ages. This is why, their attention could not go to chronological listing of events.

(2) Historians gave importance to concepts rather than events—Study of ancient material tells us that scholars that time were inclined towards propounding different concepts. They paid less attention to the events happening in the society. They were of the view that forces behind such events need to be analyzed. Events are not important. Hence, due to negligence of events, chronology got neglected.

(3) Huge point of view of Scholars—Accepting that ancient Indians were totally ignorant about history is not true, as we have huge material available in form of ancient literature. Actually, ancient Indian had huge perspective about history and they considered it as part of knowledge. They saw history as part of religion, morality, politics, economics and literature. Hence, they never felt the need to write chronological history.

(4) Negligence towards writing History—Even then, we can’t deny that they were ignorant towards writing history. Though no other species of the world did such history writing, the way it is done in modern times, still the tendency of accepting history as a separate branch is more among foreigners than Indians.

Part 1 Data Information(EXPOSURE TO COMPUTER DISCIPLINES) 

Objectives

After studying this unit, you will be able to:

Explain data into information

Discuss data representation in computer

Introduction

The computer accepts data as an input, stores it process it as the user requires and produces 

information or processed data as an output in desired format.

The use of Information Technology (IT) is well recognised. The IT has become must for the 

survival of the business houses with the growing information technology trends. Computer is 

one of the major components of an Information Technology network and gaining increasing 

popularity. Today, computer technology has permeated every sphere of existence of modern 

man. From railway reservations to medical diagnosis; from TV programmes to satellite launching;

from matchmaking to criminal catching—everywhere we witness the elegance, sophistication 

and efficiency possible only with the help of computers.

Basic computer operations are: (i) it accepts data or instruction by way of input, (ii) it stores data, 

(iii) it can process data as required by the user, (iv) it gives results in the form of output, and 

(v) it controls all operations inside a computer.