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How to install free web server latest version 3.1.0

WampServer is a Windows web development environment. It allows you to create web applications with Apache2, PHP and a MySQL database. Alongside, PhpMyAdmin allows you to manage easily your database. How to install the free Server in your computer. http://www.wampserver.com/en.








A 108 feet tall Hanuman statue has been constructed at the top of the famous Jakhu Temple of Shimla. This statue has added a power in this temple. The best part is that the ceremony of this statue was inaugurated by Bollywood star Abhishek Bachchan and Himachal Pradesh Chief Minister Prem Kumar Dhumal.

The Jakhu Temple of Simla is dedicated to the monkey God, Hanuman. The Jakhu temple is located at a height of 2455 meters and is situated on the highest peak in Shimla. The scenic view that surrounds this beautiful temple of India is absolutely breath taking and splendid.

The temple has an interesting legend behind it. It is said that a deadly arrow injured Lord Rama’s brother Lakshmana when he was fighting the battle with the demon king Ravana. Hanuman was sent to get that herb from he lofty mountains. Upon reaching the Himalayas, Hanuman couldn’t make out as to which herb was the Sanjeevani. So he dug up the entire mountain and flew back to where Lakshmana was lying injured.

After Lakshmana was cured, Hanuman went back to place the mountain in its original site. The shrine is a hotspot for monkeys who flock here in great numbers and generously accept eatables that are given to them by devotees and tourists.

hill station

Welcome to Shimla

Welcome to Shimla

Shimla District lies between the longitude 77o-0″ and 78o-19″ east and latitude 30o-45″ and 31o-44″ north. It is bounded by Mandi and Kullu in the north, Kinnaur in the east,the state of Uttaranchal in the south, Sirmaur, district in the west.
The elevation of the district ranges from 300 to 6000 metres.
History of Shimla goes back to the period of Anglo-Gurkha war in the beginning of 19th century. In 1804 the Gurkhas, who had suffered a severe defeat at the hands of the Sikhs at the battle of Kangra, a hill fortress about sixty miles from Shimla, where according to some accounts they lost thousand of men in the fight and many others from disease, commenced to ravage the states and hills surrounding Shimla. Gurkhas built many forts around Shimla.
One of these strongholds, the Jagatgarh fortress, was the origin of the modern Jutogh, the well known military
cantonment adjoining Shimla. By 1808 the invaders had conquered all the fortified posts between the Jamuna and Satluj,
and from their capital Arki began their ruthless rule over the neighbouring hill states, untill at length the people in their wretchedness appealed to the British for help.
A small British force under Major General ‘Sir David Ochterlony’ was despatched to liberate the hill men from Gurkhas.

Present day Shimla District comprises of 19 erstwhile hill states mainly Balson, Bushahr, Bhaji and Koti, Darkoti, Tharoch & Dhadi,Kumharsain, Khaneti & Delath, Dhami, Jubbal , Keothal, Rawingarh, Ratesh, Sangri. Bushahr was one of the oldest of the hill states after Kashmir in the Western Himalayas. According to one legend . Jubbal one of the Shimla . it became independent. Raja Karam Chand was the founder of the Jubbal State.
Jubbal merged with the Indian Union afterindependence and became a part of Himachal Pradesh on 15th April, 1948.

Shimla District in its present form came into existence from 1st September 1972 on the reorganisation of the districts of the state. After the reorganisation , the erstwhile Mahasu district lost its entity and its major portion was merged with Shimla.  Shimla district derives its name from Shimla town, the district headquarters and now state capital of Himachal Pradesh.
The Shimla District comprises of : 7 Sub-Divisions, 12 Tehsils and 6 Sub Tehsils.
Shimla Town

Shimla is the Capital Town of Himachal Pradesh. It was formerly the summer capital during the British Rule. The town of Shimla is built over several hills and connecting ridges. The important hills are Jakhu(8050 ft), Prospect Hill (7140 ft), Observatory Hill ( 7050 ft), Elysium Hill (7400 ft), and Summer Hill (6900 ft). There is a great controversy over the origin of the name Shimla.
The name Shimla was derived from ‘Shyamalaya’ meaning blue house said to be the name of house built of blue slate by a faqir on Jakhu. According to one version Shimla takes it name from ‘Shamla’ meaning a blue female anothername for Goddess Kali.
It was only in 1819 A.D. that the then Assistant Political Agent of hill states Lt. Ross set up first British residence, a mere wood cottage.

In 1864 Shimla was declared as the summer capital of India. After Independence, Shimla became the capital of Punjab and was later named the capital of Himachal Pradesh. In 1903 a rail line was constructed between Kalka and Shimla.
In 1946 leaders of the Indian nationalist movement came to Shimla for a crucial conference that paved the way to Independence.   Shimla’s legacy of British control has left in somewhat of Aesthetic anomaly: an Indian town, a state capital, no less that looks and feels like a village in Northern England.

Chapter 1(Part 3)Introduction to Visual Basic

Every constructs (such as class, struct, etc. ) in every .NET languages must compile to CLR compatible types to qualify as .NET managed code. You can choose compilers such as Visual Basic, C#, Visual C++, JScript, or one of many third-party compilers like Eiffel, Perl, or COBOL compiler. CLR supports a wide variety of data types and language features.

It is not mandatory to include all the CLR features in every .NET enabled languages, but the exposed language features should be compatible with the standard .NET frame work.

If your component is targeted to use by components written in other .NET languages, your component’s exported types must expose only language features that are included in the Common Language Specification (CLS).

1.3.3 Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL)

MSIL Code Generation is the first level of .NET compilation in which the high-level compiled in to a language called Intermediate Language (IL). The IL code look more like machine code than high-level language, but the IL does contain some abstract concepts such as base classes and  exception handling, which is why the language is called intermediate.

MSIL includes instructions for loading, storing, initializing, and calling methods on objects, as well as instructions for arithmetic and logical operations, control flow, direct memory access, exception handling, and other operations. When a compiler produces MSIL, it also produces metadata.

Metadata describes the types in your code, including the definition of each type, the signatures of each type’s members, the members that your code references, and other data that the runtime uses at execution time.

1.3.4 Just-In-Time Compiler

CPU-independent MSIL code can be efficiently converted to native code using Just-in-Time (JIT) compiler, only when that portion of IL code is required for execution.

JIT generated machine code is CPU-specific code that runs on the same computer architecture as the JIT compiler and it takes advantage of the added instruction sets offered by each CPU type.

1.3.5 Executing Code

When CLR executes a .NET method for the first time, it generates a processor specific native code from MSIL using the JIT compiler. The next time the method is run, the existing JIT-compiled native code is run.

The process of JIT-compiling and then executing the code is repeated until execution is complete. CLR provides myriad set of services to managed components like garbage collection, versioning, interoperability with unmanaged code, etc.

1.3.6 Assemblies

An assembly is a collection of types and resources that forms a logical unit of functionality. All types in the .NET Framework must exist in assemblies; the common language runtime does not support types outside of assemblies.

Each time you create a Microsoft Windows  Application, Windows Service, Class Library, or other application with Visual Basic .NET, you’re building a single assembly. Each assembly is stored as an .exe or .dll file.

The .NET Framework uses assemblies as the fundamental unit for several purposes:

  • Security
  • Type Identity
  • Reference Scope
  • Versioning
  • Deployment

1.3.7 Assembly Manifest

Every assembly contains an assembly manifest, a set of metadata with information about the assembly. The assembly manifest contains these items:

  • The assembly name and version
  • The culture or language the assembly supports (not required in all assemblies)
  • The public key for any strong name assigned to the assembly (not required in all assemblies)
  • A list of files in the assembly with hash information
  • Information on exported types
  • Information on referenced assemblies

In addition, you can add other information to the manifest by using assembly attributes. Assembly attributes are declared inside of a file in an assembly, and are text strings that describe the assembly. For example, you can set a friendly name for an assembly with the Assembly Title attribute:

<Assembly: AssemblyTitle(“Test Project”)>




1.3.8 An End to DLL Hell

DLL hell is a common term for various problems associated with the use of dynamic link libraries (DLLs) or DLL files. A DLL file is a resource within the Windows operating system that  contains code and data related to the functionality of one or more applications.

These files, which may have the file extension .dll or other file extensions, have been a major building block for the Windows operating system and Windows programs since the early MS-DOS versions of Microsoft’s computer technology. Successive versions of Windows have illustrated certain problems with the use of DLL files for many different programs.

From a customer perspective, the most common versioning problem is what we call DLL Hell. Simply stated, DLL Hell refers to the set of problems caused when multiple applications attempt to share a common component like a Dynamic-Link Library (DLL) or a Component Object Model (COM) class.

In the most typical case, one application will install a new version of the shared component that is not backward compatible with the version already on the machine. Although the application that has just been installed works fine, existing applications that depended on a previous version of the shared component might no longer work.

In some cases, the cause of the problem is even more subtle. For example, consider the scenario where a user downloads a Microsoft ActiveX control as a side effect of visiting some Websites. When the control is downloaded it will replace any existing versions of the control that were present on the machine.

If an application that has been installed on the machine happens to use this control, it too might potentially stop working. In many cases there is a significant delay before a user discovers that an application has stopped working.

As a result, it is often difficult to remember when a change was made to the machine that could have affected the application. A user may remember installing something a week  ago, but there is no obvious correlation between that installation and the behavior they are now seeing.

To make matters worse, there are few diagnostic tools available today to help the user determine what is wrong. The reason for these issues is that version information about the different components of an application aren’t recorded or enforced by the system.