Computer Fundamentals Part(1)

Introduction

The word “computer” comes from the word “compute”, which means, “to calculate”. Hence, people usually use a computer to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic operations at high speed. In fact, the original objective for inventing a computer was to create a fast calculating machine. However, more than 80% of work done by computers today is of non-mathematical or non-numerical nature. Hence, to define computer merely as a calculating device is to ignore over 80% of its functions. More accurately, we can define a computer as a device that operates upon data.

Data can be anything like bio-data, hence computer is used for short listing candidates for recruiting; marks obtained by students in when used for preparing results; details (name, age, sex, etc.) of passengers when used for or railway reservations: or number of different parameters when used for solving scientific problems, etc. Hence, data comes in various shapes and sizes depending upon the type of computer application. A computer can and retrieves data as and when desired. The fact that computers process data is so fundamental that have started calling it a data processor.

The name data processor is more inclusive because modern computers not only compute in the usual sense but also perform other functions with data that flows to and from them. For example, data processors may gather data from various incoming sources, merge (process of mixing or putting together) them all, sort (process of arranging in some of sequence— ascending or descending) them in the desired order, and finally print them in desired format. Notice that none of these operations involves arithmetic computations in the usual sense but a computer is the most suitable device for performing them.

People usually consider a computer to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic operations at high speed. It is also known as a data processor because it not only computes in the usual sense but also performs other functions with the data. The activity of processing data using a computer is called data processing. Data processing consists of three sub-activities: capturing input data, manipulating the data, and managing output results. As used in data processing, information is data arranged in an order and form that is useful to people receiving it. Hence, data is raw material used as input to data processing and information is processed data obtained as output of data processing.

 

1.1 Characteristics of Computers

Increasing popularity of computers has proved that it is a very powerful and useful tool. The power and useful of this popular tool are mainly due to its following characteristics:

  1. An automatic machine works by itself without human intervention. Computers automatic machines because once started on a job, they carry out the job (normally without a human assistance) until it is finished. However, computers being machines cannot start themselves and cannot go out and find their own problems and solutions. We need to instruct a computer using coded instructions that specify exactly how it will do a particular job. Some of the other characteristics of computers (such as speed and accuracy) are because they are automatic and work on a problem without any human intervention.
  2. Speed. A computer is a very fast device. It can perform in a few seconds, the amount of work that a human being can do in an entire year if he/she worked day and night and did nothing else. In other words, a computer can do in a few minutes what would take a man his entire life time while talking about the speed of a computer we do not talk in terms of seconds or even milliseconds (10–3) but in terms of microseconds (106), nanoseconds (10–9), and even picoseconds (10–12). A powerful computer is capable of performing several billion (l09) simple arithmetic operations per second.
  1. Accuracy. In addition to being very fast, computers are very accurate. Accuracy of a computer is consistently high and the degree of its accuracy depends upon its design. A computer performs even calculation with the same accuracy. However, errors can occur in a computer. These errors are mainly due to human rather than technological weaknesses. For example, errors may occur due to imprecise thinking by a programmer or incorrect input data. We often refer to computer errors caused due to incorrect input data or unreliable programs as garbage-in-garbage-out (GIGO).
  2. Diligence. Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of concentration. It can continuously work for hours without creating any error and without grumbling. Hence, computers score over human beings in doing routine type of jobs that require great accuracy. If ten million calculations have to be performed, a computer will perform the last one with exactly the same accuracy and speed as the first one.
  3. Versatility. Versatility is one of the most wonderful things about a computer. One moment it is preparing results of an examination, next moment it is busy preparing electricity bills, and in between, it may be helping an office secretary to trace an important letter in seconds. All that is required to change its talent is to slip in a new program (a sequence of instructions for the computer) into it. In brief, a computer is capable of performing almost any task, if the task can be reduced to a finite series of logical steps.
  4. Power of Remembering. As a human being acquires new knowledge, his/her brain subconsciously selects what it feels to be important and worth retaining in memory. The brain relegates unimportant details to back of mind or just forgets them. This is not the case with computers. A computer can store and recall any amount of information because of its secondary storage (a type of detachable memory) capability. It can retain a piece of information as long as a user desires and the user can recall the information whenever required. Even after several years, a user can recall exactly the same information that he/she had stored in the computer several years ago. A computer forgets or looses creation information only when a user asks it to do so. Hence, it is entirely up to the user to make a computer retain or forget some information. No IQ.   A computer is not a magical device. It possesses no intelligence of its own. Its IQ is zero, at least until today. It has to be told what to do and in what sequence. Hence, only a user determines—at tasks a computer will perform. A computer cannot take its own decision in this regard. No Feelings. Computers are devoid of emotions. They have no feelings and no instincts because they are Machines. Although men have succeeded in building a memory for computer, but no computer processes the equivalent of a human heart and soul. Based on our feelings, taste, knowledge, and experience we often make certain judgments in our day-to-day life whereas, computers cannot make judgments on their own. They make judgments based on the instructions given to them in the form of programs that are written by us (human beings).

 

Shri Krishna Janmashtami

Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Shri Krishna Janmashtami

The place where God or God occupies in the form of his divine power is called pilgrimage and that place is called pilgrimage place. Similarly, on the day God Himself quotes, the day becomes worshiped, purified and festive. On the day of Lord Krishna Janmashtami, we all express veneration by keeping vows and worshiping with sacred prayers. On this day only fruit diet is done. Fast means that do not stay in the pose of rest. Do not lie on this day. Do not sit in front of the chair sitting by sitting. Thus the body is meditated. By applying body strength comes firmness and beliefs of God are strengthened. By joining Bhajan Kirtan in the temples, the mind comes to purity in the mind.

                Vande Prabhu ParvarvindeBhio: Rarenda |
                    Yogi Kul Vanditan, Karmasu Kaushalam ||

God’s meditation is always welfare. Shri Krishna tells you to act on the path of karma. While working in his own religion, he is asked to attain salvation. Brahmin, Kshatriyya, Vaishya (businessman) and Shudra (farmer) should do all of their own natural deeds in these four letters. Everyone is interested in doing karma. God has given us the immense nature of doing deeds.

Others do the same, so I also conduct myself in karma. This is not a simple statement. It has an intense meaning. It appears from this that if the best person does wrong work, then will the sensible person also do wrong work. Will not you think? I will never do wrong things. But this rule says that all the best man imitates. Whether it is good or bad. Now you take India’s imitation of western clothes. Firstly all men and women were hesitant to wear half incomplete clothing. The elite class started wearing such clothes. Those who respected and respected the society. Whichever was the greatest. Then other people of the society started their simulation. And today everyone has left the hesitation and adopted western clothes. On the contrary, even if the upper class people started wearing dhoti kurtas, then such a rule.

Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Whenever God is incarnate, in this world of emotions, he performs liberation only in life. God is the rest of the Karmadhas and Lord Vishnu is himself a form of self. Let us fast and worship this day and imitate Yogeshwar, the best life of Shri Krishna.

Yogeshwar Sri Krishna says that I am the supreme (Spirit) in the souls. That’s why I’m male. I am the supreme God, beyond the awareness of ignorance (which is not the darkness of ignorance). That is, those who are themselves knowledgeable and ignorant can not be present before them.
                        The mind thought, today is fasting.
                        Today, why do you think in Hari?
                        Nothing keeps a pure house.
                        Why do the thoughts of ill-feelings in mind persist?
                        Why the reverence convinces the mind.
                        I am a stranger, the appetite makes such a feeling.
Krishna’s Birthday
Shri Krishna Janmashtami
Shri Krishna Janmashtami

Shri Krishna was born on the midnight of Bhadrapad Krishna Ashtami in the Rohini Nakshatra, Devaki and Srivasudev Was born in the form of a son. Kans was imprisoned in the prison due to the fear of his death, his sister Devaki and Vasudev. According to Lord’s instructions, Kushna was taken from Mathura jail in the night to Nand Baba’s house in Gokul.

Nand’s wife Yashoda was a daughter. Vasudev took the girl along with him to Shrikrishna near Yashoda. Kans wanted to kill the girl as Vasudeva and Devaki’s children, but she failed in this work. After this Sri Krishna was brought up by Yashoda and Nand. When Shri Krishna grew up, he got his parents freed from his imprisonment by slaughtering Kansa. Birth of Lord

Hanuman is  celebrated in Janmashtami as a festival. In this celebration, after offering camphor, turmeric, curd, ghee, oil, saffron and water on Lord Vishwagra, people interact and consume these items with great joy. At many places, milk-yogurt in handi is filled to a very high altitude. Young people’s trolls take part in this festival by spreading it and spoiling the prize.

Sources of Ancient Indian History(Part 1)

Introduction

History of each nation is a heritage for its future generations to come. Glorious works done by the predecessors inspire next generations. After analyzing their mistakes, decide their course of actions and effort of regaining the glorious past is done. Any society can’t save its cultural heritage by staying away from its past. Hence, every society is connected with its past and plans for the future on the basis of its past. This is the reason, each nation attached prime importance to the study of its history. When we study the importance of Indian history, then many characteristics of that time come across, which we don’t get from any other nation’s ancient culture.

Firstly, India is the only country which made humans cultured and civilized first. The time, when other people of civilized and developed nations were living in forests living life of animals, India had already developed high-class culture. Secondly, India is the only country, whose cultural lifeline has been fl owing since very ancient periods. In all other countries, where developed any specificce culture, have been lost in times and their existence ended.

Today, they are only a subject of history. Famous poet of Urdu Iqbal said, “Greek, Egypt, Rome all got extinct, but there is something that our existence does not end.” It means that all cultures of Greece, Rome and Egypt got extinct and replaced by new culture, which has got nothing to do with old culture. But India is the only country in the world, which is living up with its old tradition and culture with its great values being intact.

Sources of Ancient Indian History2
Sources of Ancient Indian History

Iqbal says that there is something fundamental l in having this continuity of Indian culture. Student of history must study these superior values and elements else, we can’t study India as India, and this can only be done by studying ancient Indian history. Thirdly, this is the quality of Indian culture only that has to power to give secular and spiritual satisfaction both, i.e. it has the ability to have all round human development. Due to this only India was called ‘golden bird’ and had the honor of being called ‘World Guru’.

Fourthly, Indian culture has the power to establish peace as this has seen the entire world as a family and has inspired Indians to put in efforts for the development of its peace and prosperity. Thus, people here done great job of making other people excel in their lives. With above characteristics in context of our great ancient history, we can analyze the importance of ancient Indian history.

In the absence of such study, student of India can’t ever know that he is part of such great cultural heritage. Student shall feel proud towards glorious Indian culture and tradition. British have deformed Indian history and presented in such manner that Indian students feel inferior and their courage recede. Glorious Indian past can inspire Indian students to do great work and ambition of rekindling ancient glory of Indian history can be achieved.

1.1 Sources of Ancient Indian History

India is an ancient country. As per many Indian scholars, Indian culture is the oldest in the world. Indians pondered over all aspects of life and being expert in writing, they composed literature on poetry, philosophy, art, science and other topics. As per foreign scholars too, Indian culture is older than china, Egypt, Mesopotamia etc. Despite having such great scholars in greatly civilized ancient country, India does not have a written chronology of history, this looks surprising. Some foreign historians have gone to the extent and said that Indian historian lacked historical sense.

Sources of Ancient Indian History
Sources of Ancient Indian History

Reaching to conclusion that there was no historical creation in ancient Indian time, would be wrong. Actually, there were no such important historical development in that period that could be recorded. Actually this can be considered as truth that Indians were neutral to history and politics and they used to study these subjects under other social disciplines only.

As per Dr. R.C. Majumdar, “One of the greatest defects of Indian culture is the aversion of Indians to write history. They applied themselves to all conceivable branches of literature and excelled in many of them, but never seriously took to writing history.” Alberuni says, Hindus don’t pay much attention to the historical order of things. As regards knowing Indian resources, sources to history prior to 6th century BC are limited, but post that period we have enough sources.

Researches till now have dug out sufficient ancient Indian history resources. Even then, it is not possible to have chronological description of ancient Indian history, as other nations. Main reason being absence of great historians like Herodotus of Greece (father of history), Livy of Rome or Albertan of Turkey. Reasons of Neutralism of Indians towards History—Lack of chronological order in Indian history can’t be justified to see it as lack of historical sense. There can be many reasons for such ignorance to  historical chronology as mentioned below—

(1) Historical Writers were Brahmans—Composer of entire Indian literature were Brahmans, who  had little interest in politics. Their interest was more in poetry, arts, philosophy and science. This section of society was majorly involved in spiritual meditation and establishment of moral values.  They had little interest in physical life. Instead of describing activities of kings and emperors, they mentioned different disciplines required for guidance of the society of their ages. This is why, their attention could not go to chronological listing of events.

(2) Historians gave importance to concepts rather than events—Study of ancient material tells us that scholars that time were inclined towards propounding different concepts. They paid less attention to the events happening in the society. They were of the view that forces behind such events need to be analyzed. Events are not important. Hence, due to negligence of events, chronology got neglected.

(3) Huge point of view of Scholars—Accepting that ancient Indians were totally ignorant about history is not true, as we have huge material available in form of ancient literature. Actually, ancient Indian had huge perspective about history and they considered it as part of knowledge. They saw history as part of religion, morality, politics, economics and literature. Hence, they never felt the need to write chronological history.

(4) Negligence towards writing History—Even then, we can’t deny that they were ignorant towards writing history. Though no other species of the world did such history writing, the way it is done in modern times, still the tendency of accepting history as a separate branch is more among foreigners than Indians.

Part 1 Data Information(EXPOSURE TO COMPUTER DISCIPLINES) 

Objectives

After studying this unit, you will be able to:

Explain data into information

Discuss data representation in computer

Introduction

The computer accepts data as an input, stores it process it as the user requires and produces 

information or processed data as an output in desired format.

The use of Information Technology (IT) is well recognised. The IT has become must for the 

survival of the business houses with the growing information technology trends. Computer is 

one of the major components of an Information Technology network and gaining increasing 

popularity. Today, computer technology has permeated every sphere of existence of modern 

man. From railway reservations to medical diagnosis; from TV programmes to satellite launching;

from matchmaking to criminal catching—everywhere we witness the elegance, sophistication 

and efficiency possible only with the help of computers.

Basic computer operations are: (i) it accepts data or instruction by way of input, (ii) it stores data, 

(iii) it can process data as required by the user, (iv) it gives results in the form of output, and 

(v) it controls all operations inside a computer.

रक्षा बंधन : भाई बहन के स्नेह का प्रतीक

“कितना पावन, कितना निर्मल राखी का त्योहार राखी के पावन धागों में छिपा बहन का प्यार ।”

भूमिका – रक्षाबंधन का त्योहार भाई-बहन के पवित्र स्नेह का प्रतीक है । यह हिंदुओं का विशेष त्योहार है । भाई-बहन के स्नेह का प्रतीक ऐसा त्योहार विश्व के किसी भी देश में नहीं मनाया जाता । श्रावण मास की पूर्णिमा के दिन मनाए जाने के कारण इसे श्रावणी नाम से भी जाना जाता है ।

पौराणिक एवं ऐतिहासिक संबंध – इतिहास को देखने पर रक्षाबंधन के तीन रूप नजर आते हैं । सर्वप्रथम रक्षा की कामना के रूप इसका हुआ । युद्ध समय, व्यापार प्रतीक के में प्रयोग भूमि में जाते के लिए विदेशों में समुद्र यात्रा पर जाने से पहले पत्नियां, परिवार के अन्य सदस्य, ब्राह्मण आदि रक्षा सूत्र बांधकर पुरुष के सुरक्षित लौटने की कामना करते थे । इस बात के कई उदाहरण मिलते हैं । कहते हैं कि देवों तथा असुरों के मध्य भयंकर युद्ध छिड़ जाने पर इंद्र ने युद्ध भूमि में जाने से पूर्व उसकी पत्नि शची ने अपने पति की कलाई पर रक्षा सूत्र बांधा था । इसका दूसरा रूप हमें उस समय देखने को मिलता है जब आश्रितों द्वारा सशक्तों की कलाई पर रक्षासूत्र बांधकर उनसे प्रण लिया जाता था कि वे उनकी रक्षा करेंगे । इसके प्रमाण गुरुकुल प्रथा में मिलते हैं । गुरुकुलों में इस दिन अध्ययन एवं अध्यापन का नववर्ष प्रारंभ होता है । इस दिन राजे-महाराजे गुरुकुलों में जाकर यज्ञ में भाग लेते हैं और वेद, ब्राह्यण एवं गौ-रक्षा का प्रण लेते हैं । तब ऋषि-महर्षि राजाओं की कलाईयों पर रक्षासूत्र बांधते थे । सिकन्दर एवं पोरस कें मध्य युद्ध में सिकन्दर की प्रेमिका ने पोरस की कलाई पर राखी बांधकर अपने प्रेमी. की प्राण रक्षा का वचन लिया था । यही कारण है कि सिकन्दर वध के बार-बार अवसर मिलने पर भी पोरस ने सिकन्दर का वध नहीं किया । संभवत : राखी बांधने के कारण मुंहबोली बहन के सुहाग की रक्षा के लिए ऐसा किया होगा । इसी प्रकार जब बहादुर शाह ने मेवाड़ पर आक्रमण किया तो चित्तौड़ की महारानी कर्मवती ने मुगल शासक हुमायूँ को राखी भेजी थी तथा हुमायूँ ने कर्मवती की रक्षा भी की थी । राखी के धागे में इतनी शक्ति है कि एक विधर्मी भी उससे प्रभावित हुए बिना न रह सका ।

पर्व मनाने का ढंग – रक्षाबंधन का त्योहार भाई-बहन के संबंध को और भी मधुर एवं प्रगाढ़ बना देता है । इस दिन बहनें अपने भाई के हाथ में राखी बांधकर उनसे अपनी रक्षा का व्रत लेती हैं तथा भाई की दीर्घायु की कामना करती हैं । भाई बहन की रक्षा का वचन देता है । आजकल भाई अपनी सामर्थ्य अनुसार बहन को उपहार भी देता है । राखी से कुछ दिन पहले ही बाजार राखियों, उपहारों एवं मिठाईयों से सजे होते हैं । इसका प्रारंभिक रूप मौली का धागा था परंतु आज के आडम्बर प्रधान युग में राखियों में भी आडम्बर दिखाई देता है । बहनें राखी, मिठाई एवं फल आदि चीजें भाई को भेंट करती हैं तथा भाई आशीर्वाद तथा उपहार या रुपये देता है ।

आश्रितों की रक्षा से होता हुआ आज यह त्योहार विशेषकर भाई द्वारा बहन की रक्षा के भाव तक सीमित होकर रह गया है । इस परिवर्तन का कारण समकालीन राजनैतिक परिस्थितियां थीं जिसमें बहन की रक्षा करना भाई का उत्तरदायित्व हो गया । प्राचीनकाल में वैसे तो .स्त्रियां तलवारबाजी, घुड़सवारी आदि में प्रवीण थी तथा अपनी रक्षा स्वयं कर सकती थी परंतु आपत्ति के समय रक्षा सूत्र बांधकर भाईयों की सहायता भी लेती थी ।

उपसंहार – आजकल राखी के त्योहार की पवित्रता धीरे-धीरे समाप्त होती जा रही है तथा सच्चे प्रेम का स्थान खो गया है । बहन कोकेवल धन या उपहार देकर भाई का कर्त्तव्य समाप्त नहीं हो जाता । हमें राखी के त्योहार की पवित्रता को भी ध्यान में रखना चाहिए तथा आजीवन बहन की रक्षा का व्रत लेना चाहिए । राखी का महत्त्व उसकी सुन्दरता में नहीं बल्कि उन धागों में छिपी प्राचीन परंपरा एवं भाई-बहन के प्यार की पवित्र भावना में है ।

रक्षाबन्धन

शाश्वत स्नेह और सुरक्षा की दृष्टि से आश्वस्त करने वाला यह त्योहार भाई-बहन के प्रेम का साक्षी एक पवित्र साँस्कृतिक त्योहार है । यों यह मुख्य रूप से हिन्दू जाति और धर्मावलम्बियों के घरी में ही मनाया जाता है; पर अन्य जातियो के व्यक्तियों को भी राखी बान्धते बन्धवाते पूर्व इतिहास में तो देखा ही गया है, आजकल भी अक्सर दिखाई दे जाया करता है । कई बार हिन्दू बहनें किसी मुस्लिम या अन्य जाति-वर्ग के भाई को राखी बान्धती हुई दिखाई दे जीती हैं ।

इसी प्रकार हिन्दू भाई अन्य जाति की बहनो से आग्रहपूर्वक पवित्र राखी के धागे कलाई पर बन्धवा कर उनके प्रेम और सुरक्षा का दायित्व अपने-आप पर लेते हुए सुने-देखे जाते हैं । इस प्रकार प्रमुख रूप से वह बहन-भाई के पवित्र प्रेम और अटूट रिश्ते-नाते को रूपायित करने वाला त्योहार ही है ।  रक्षाबन्धन या राखी का यह पर्व कब, क्यों और किस प्रकार आरम्भ हुआ, पुराण-इतिहास में इस का कोई स्पष्ट उल्लेख नहीं मिलता । ही, विशेष अवसरो पर वहाँ पुरोहितो द्वारा अपने यजमानो की दाहिनी कलाई मे रक्षा या मंगल कामना करते हुए एक मौलिसूत्र बाँधने का वर्णन या विधान अवश्य मिलता है ।

बाद में यह विधान भी मिलने लगता है कि हिन्दू राजा और सामन्त आदि जब युद्ध करने जाया करते थे, तब उनकी माताएँ, बहनें और पत्नियाँ उनके माथे पर अक्षतकुंकुम का केसर लगा कर एक मौलि सूत्र उन की विजय एवं मंगल-कामना करते हुए अवश्य बाँध दिया करती थीं । अनुमान होता है कि इसी रीति ने धीरे-धीरे विकास कर के रक्षाबन्धन का स्वरूप धारण कर लिया होगा । बाद में शान्ति काल में इस का विधान केवल भाई-बहनों तक ही रूढ एवं सीमित हो कर रह गया होगा । आज रक्षाबन्धन का त्योहार बहनो द्वारा अपने भाईयों की कलाइयों पर सुन्दर-संजीली राखियाँ बान्धने. बदले में कुछ धन पाने तक ही सीमित होकर रह गया है । ही, पुजारी-पुरोहित भी इस दिन अपने यजमानों की कलाई पर लालसूत्र बाँध कर बदले में कुछ दक्षिणा प्राप्त करते हुए आज भी दिखाई दे जाते हैं ।

इसे मात्र परम्परा को निबाहे जाना ही कहा जा सकता है । कभी राखी के कच्चे धागों के बन्धन के प्रभाव एवं शक्ति को अचूक माना जाता था, इस तथ्य में तनिक भी सन्देह नहीं । इतिहास इस बात का जीवन्त गवाह- है कि जब कभी भी किसी जातीय या विजातीय भाई को किसी बहन ने राखी भिजवाई, उसे पवित्र प्रेम का अमर- निश्छल निमंत्रण मान कर उस भाई ने अपने दुःख-सुख, संकट-विपदा आदि की परवाह किए बिना प्राण-पण की बाजी लगा कर मुँह बोली बहन के वचन की रक्षा के लिए अपने सर्वस्व की बाजी लगा दी । चित्तौड के महाराणा संग्राम सिंह की मृत्यु के बाद जब सुल्तान बहादुरशाह ने चारों ओर से चित्तौड गढ को घेर लिया था, तब अपने-आप को नितान्त असहाय पाकर महारानी कर्मवती ने शहनशाह हुमायूँ को राखी भिजवा कर अपने राज्य की रक्षा के लिए मौन निमंत्रण दिया ।

राखी की पवित्रता और महत्त्व को समझने वाले हुमायूँ स्वयं शेरशाह सूरी के आक्रमणो से आतकित रहने पर भी मुँहबोली बहन कर्मवती के चित्तौड की रक्षा के लिए भागे आए थे । यह ठीक है कि समय पर न पहुँच पाने के कारण वे चित्तौड को पराजित होने और कर्मवती को जौहर की ज्वाला में जल मरने से बचा नहीं पाए, पर बाद में बहादुर शाह को पराजित कर और मेवाड के असली वारिस (उदयसिंह) को उसके राज्य पर अधिष्ठित करवा कर उन्होने राखी का मोल भरसक चुका दिया । इस प्रकार इस ऐतिहासिक घटना ने रक्षाबन्धन जैसे पवित्र पर्व का महत्त्व निश्चय ही और बढ दिया ।

आज भी रक्षाबन्धन का पर्व आने पर बाजार रंग-बिरंगी राखियों से भर जाते हैं । राखी खरीदने वाली बहनो की बाजारों में भीड-भाड भी काफी रहा करती है । मिठाइयों की दुकानें और स्टील भी भरे-पूरे एवं सजे-धजे रहा करते हैं । वहाँ भी खूब खरीददारी होती है । रक्षाबन्धन वाले दिन सजी-धजी बहनों की भीड घरों, बाजारों, बसों, स्कूटरों, कारों आदि में अपनी-अपनी हैसियत के साथ सर्वत्र देखी-परखी जाती है । लेकिन अब यह सब मात्र एक परम्परा का निर्वाह, एक औपचारिकता बनकर ही अधिक रह गया है । आज राखी बान्धने के बाद बहनें गिनती करती हैं कि उसके भाई ने उसे कितने नोट आदि दिए । यह देखती भी हैं कि उसने अपनी हैसियत और उस (बहन) के स्टेटस के अनुसार दिया है कि नहीं ।

विवाहित बहनों से पतियों -सासों आदि द्वारा पूछा-परखा जाता है कि राखी बाँध कर वह कितनी उगाही कर लाई है । स्पष्ट है कि इस प्रकार की पूछ-ताछ और जाँच-परख बहन-भाई के पवित्र स्नेह बन्धन की कसौटी, होकर हैसियत जानने-देखने की कसौटी ही हुआ करती है । इसी कारण आज रक्षाबन्धन का पावन त्योहार भी अन्य सभी त्योहारों की तरह एक लकीर को पीटे जाना ही प्रतीत होने लगा है और उचित ही लोग इस तरह की औपचारिकताओं का विरोध करने लगे हैं । ठीक डग और सच्चे मन से मनाए जाकर ही पर्व और त्योहार किसी जाति की साँस्कृतिक जीवन्तता के प्रतीक एवं परिचायक बने रहा करते हैं ।

त्योहारों के अवसरो पर व्यक्त परम्पराओं और रीति-नीतियों के उचित निर्वाह से ही किसी संस्कृति के उदात एवं सात्विक गुण भी उजागर हो पाया करते हैं । अत: यदि हम लोग रक्षाबन्धन की पावन अंतरंगत एवं साँस्कृतिक उच्चता को ध्वस्त नहीं होने देना चाहते, तो हमें उसमें आ गई औपचारिकता का निराकरण करना ही होगा ।